Thursday, 30 January 2014

MODULE 1: Language Strategies

When you read a passage or hear some form of verbal communication, there are linguistic features which make an impression on you. This is so because the words, graphs and symbols chosen and their arrangements are telling you something about the writer`s/speaker`s purpose and context

The use of various linguistic, grammatical, punctuations and features to convey the overall purpose of the speaker/writer are referred to as language strategies.

In assessing the language strategy of a speaker/writer or in devising strategies of your own, you may want to consider the following:

The Linguistic Features
These refer to the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary that the writer uses to convey his intended message. Consider what the use of each of the following might mean:
  • Type of language used: spoken or written, formal or informal, personal or impersonal, standard or creole?
  • The vocabulary used: prosaic or florid, simple or stilted, slang or formal, repetition of key words and phrases?
  • The phrasing and sentence structure: simple or complex, economical or verbose, direct or circumlocutory
  • Connotative or Denotative use of language: words used emotively - to convey arouse feelings, to suggest; words used referentially - to emphasize or state factual content; words which seem to primarily about conveying facts but which are really intended to arouse emotions.
  • Significant use of punctuation marks- eg. pause marks such as full stops, question signs, exclamation marks and suspension dots.
  • Lay-out of the page- use of banner headlines, newspaper (column) or broad-sheet lay-out, advertising-copy layout, verse-lay-out, portrait or landscape lay-out.
  • Typographical features- use of font sizes, bold face, capitals, spacing, indentation, italic/roman type.
  • Use of pictures and graphics - help make written concepts plain; reinforce concepts; help to stimulate for younger readers.
Function and Purpose of the Language

Identifying the type of writing (discourse) will help you determine its function. Consider if it is narrative, expository, descriptive, dramatic, argumentative

Read more here, on some common types of discourse and the purposes for which writers have used them.

The Context of the Language

Every time language is used to communicate meaning it takes place within a particular set of circumstances referred to as the context of use. The context influences the way language is used and it includes:
  • the subject matter or content to be communicated
  • the purpose for the communication
  • the writer`s/speaker`s awareness of her relationship to the audience
  • the way the writer/speaker wishes or expects the audience to respond

Selecting Your Target Audience

To communicate effectively with your intended target audience, you must have a `sense` of that audience. You need to know what they are like and what their expectations are. Here are some considerations:
  • The age of the speaker/narrator and the effect on the audience/reader/listener receiving the communication
  • The status or social background of the audience
  • The knowledge background of the audience - how much or little do they know of the topic being communicated and the level of their interest.
  • The presence or absence of an emotional connection between speaker/writer and intended audience - is it hostile, indifferent, cordial, intimate?
  • The size of the audience being addressed - inter-personal or group communication?
  • The degree to which the communication is intended to be public, private or intimate.

Saturday, 11 January 2014

CAPE'S Characteristics of English Creole Languages - PART 3 (VOCABULARY)

English Creole (EC) has words that do not resemble words in Caribbean Standard English (CSE) even though they share the same meaning. For example:

1. Pickney and Child
2. Nyam and Eat
3. Bazodi and Confused
4. Nose-hole and Nostril
5. Eye-water and Tears

EC and CSE has shared words that signify different parts of speech. For example"

1. Stink ( adj.) and Stink (n, v)
2. Over (v, prep, adv.) and Over (prep, adv)
3. Sweet (adj., v, n) and Sweet (adj., n)

EC and CSE share words that though they resemble, have different meanings. For example:

1. Miserable = Ill-tempered and  Miserable = Wretched
2. Ignorant = Ill-tempered and Ignorant = lacking in knowledge

CAPE'S Characteristics of English Creole Languages - PART 2 (PHONOLOGY)

Characteristics of Phonology (English Creole vs Caribbean Standard English)

English Creole uses:

1. No voiced consonant clusters at the end of words, for example, -nd  is replaced by -n, as in han, san . Whereas CSE uses voiced clusters at the end of words, for example, -nd, as in hand, sand.

2. No voiceless consonant clusters at the end of words, for example, -st is replaced by -s, as in tes, wris; similarly -ft is replaced by -f, for example as in lef. Whereas in CSE, voiceless consonant clusters occur at the end of words, for example, -st, as in test, wrist; -ft, as in left.

3. No voiceless-voiced consonant clusters at the end of words, for example, -sed is replaced by -s as in miss; -ghed becomes gh in words like laugh; -ped > p, as in leap. Whereas CSE makes use of voiceless-voiced consonant cluster at the end of words, for example, -st, as in test, wrist, -ft, as in left.

4. No voiced 'th' sound at the beginning of words or syllables; a 'd' sound instead, for example in dey, dem, la.der. Whereas CSE uses the voiced 'th' sound at the beginning of words or syllables, for example, in they, them and la.ther.

5. No voiceless 'th' sound at the end of words or syllables; a 't'; or 'f' sound instead, for example, in fift/fif, wit/wif. Whereas in CSE the voiceless 'th' sound occurs at the end of words or syllables, for example in fifth and with.


CAPE'S Characteristics of English Creole Languages - PART 1 (GRAMMAR)

Characteristics of Grammar (English Creoles vs. Caribbean Standard English)


English Creole uses:

1. Unlimited count nouns with generic meaning, for example, woman sweet. Whereas Caribbean Standard English (CSE) pluralizes count nouns with generic meaning, for example, women are sweet.

2. Unmarked action verbs with past time reference, for example, him kiss mi and run weh. Whereas in CSE action verbs with past time reference are marked, for example, he kissed me and ran away.

3. Preverbal markers to indicate time for example, ben/bin/wen/did (past marker), go (future marker), a (marker of continuous and habitual), does (marker of habitual). Whereas CSE uses auxiliaries and suffixes, for example did/-ed (past), will/shall (future), -ing (continuous), simple present tense forms (cook, cooks)

4. Subject- adjective structures, for example, mi nice, di street wet. Whereas CSE uses Subject- copula-adjective structures, for example, I am nice, the street is wet.

5. Subject-verb word order in question formation, together with rising intonation, for example, you done wash di clothes? Whereas CSE inverts the subject and auxiliary in question formation together with rising intonation, for example, have you finished washing the clothes?

6. Front-focusing of different parts of the sentence for emphasis, tired a tired, is di chicken he burn. Whereas CSE has pitch-emphasized parts, for example, I am tired, he burned the chicken.