Wednesday, 5 March 2014

Listening Comprehension Tips


Pre-Writing: Planning

  1. Read the questions carefully to understand what you are being asked to do.
  2. Listen actively. Keep your purpose for listening in mind by referring to questions.
  3. During the first reading jot down notes on significant devices of the passage based on the questions.
  4. During the second reading, check to see if your jottings from the first reading are supported by the entire passage.
  5. Give the answer the question asks for.
  6. Write your answers in complete sentences
  7. Use your summary writing skills. A long answer is not necessarily a better answer.

Writing

1. A main idea should not be a purpose. It should read:

"The main idea of the passage is that..." NOT "The main idea of the passage is to tell..."

2. When commenting on the effectiveness of a device used by the writer, you are to tell how the use of the device helps the writer to achieve his purpose for writing. 

Weak Answer: "The writer uses a metaphor to describe the beauty of the sunset and how night fell." or "The writer uses a metaphor to bring his point across."

Better Answer: "The writer uses a metaphor to convey his admiration for the magnificent sunset and to show how suddenly night fell upon the landscape."

Post-Writing

  1. Check your responses against the questions on the exam to ensure that you have answered all the parts of each question with exactly what has been asked.
  2. Edit your work to get rid of grammatical errors, expression errors and unclear sentences.

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Good Luck!

Thursday, 30 January 2014

MODULE 1: Language Strategies

When you read a passage or hear some form of verbal communication, there are linguistic features which make an impression on you. This is so because the words, graphs and symbols chosen and their arrangements are telling you something about the writer`s/speaker`s purpose and context
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The use of various linguistic, grammatical, punctuations and features to convey the overall purpose of the speaker/writer are referred to as language strategies.

In assessing the language strategy of a speaker/writer or in devising strategies of your own, you may want to consider the following:

The Linguistic Features
These refer to the grammar, syntax, and vocabulary that the writer uses to convey his intended message. Consider what the use of each of the following might mean:
  • Type of language used: spoken or written, formal or informal, personal or impersonal, standard or creole?
  • The vocabulary used: prosaic or florid, simple or stilted, slang or formal, repetition of key words and phrases?
  • The phrasing and sentence structure: simple or complex, economical or verbose, direct or circumlocutory
  • Connotative or Denotative use of language: words used emotively - to convey arouse feelings, to suggest; words used referentially - to emphasize or state factual content; words which seem to primarily about conveying facts but which are really intended to arouse emotions.
  • Significant use of punctuation marks- eg. pause marks such as full stops, question signs, exclamation marks and suspension dots.
  • Lay-out of the page- use of banner headlines, newspaper (column) or broad-sheet lay-out, advertising-copy layout, verse-lay-out, portrait or landscape lay-out.
  • Typographical features- use of font sizes, bold face, capitals, spacing, indentation, italic/roman type.
  • Use of pictures and graphics - help make written concepts plain; reinforce concepts; help to stimulate for younger readers.
Function and Purpose of the Language

Identifying the type of writing (discourse) will help you determine its function. Consider if it is narrative, expository, descriptive, dramatic, argumentative

Read more here, on some common types of discourse and the purposes for which writers have used them.

The Context of the Language

Every time language is used to communicate meaning it takes place within a particular set of circumstances referred to as the context of use. The context influences the way language is used and it includes:
  • the subject matter or content to be communicated
  • the purpose for the communication
  • the writer`s/speaker`s awareness of her relationship to the audience
  • the way the writer/speaker wishes or expects the audience to respond

Selecting Your Target Audience

To communicate effectively with your intended target audience, you must have a `sense` of that audience. You need to know what they are like and what their expectations are. Here are some considerations:
  • The age of the speaker/narrator and the effect on the audience/reader/listener receiving the communication
  • The status or social background of the audience
  • The knowledge background of the audience - how much or little do they know of the topic being communicated and the level of their interest.
  • The presence or absence of an emotional connection between speaker/writer and intended audience - is it hostile, indifferent, cordial, intimate?
  • The size of the audience being addressed - inter-personal or group communication?
  • The degree to which the communication is intended to be public, private or intimate.



Saturday, 11 January 2014

CAPE'S Characteristics of English Creole Languages - PART 3 (VOCABULARY)



English Creole (EC) has words that do not resemble words in Caribbean Standard English (CSE) even though they share the same meaning. For example:

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1. Pickney and Child
2. Nyam and Eat
3. Bazodi and Confused
4. Nose-hole and Nostril
5. Eye-water and Tears

EC and CSE has shared words that signify different parts of speech. For example"

1. Stink ( adj.) and Stink (n, v)
2. Over (v, prep, adv.) and Over (prep, adv)
3. Sweet (adj., v, n) and Sweet (adj., n)

EC and CSE share words that though they resemble, have different meanings. For example:

1. Miserable = Ill-tempered and  Miserable = Wretched
2. Ignorant = Ill-tempered and Ignorant = lacking in knowledge